a testing of Pacific Sunwear (PSUN)

Pacific Sunwear (PSUN) operates two shopping center based retail stores: PacSun and d.e.mo. PacSun is a nationwide browse and skate themed string with about 900 places comprising roughly 3.25 million sqft. d.e.m.o. is a hip jump themed string with about 200 stores comprising roughly 500,000 sqft. Both stores target the “teen” market (specifically, men and women many years 12-24).


Nationwide, PacSun operates roughly 800 PacSun stores and 100 PacSun Outlets. Unlike PacSun stores, that are very uniformly distributed on such basis as populace, PacSun Outlets tend to be skewed towards extremely populous states with huge areas of extraordinarily large populace density (“suburban sprawl”). Truly the only exclusions tend to be Virginia, vermont, and Louisiana. Even though the few stores in virtually any one state is little adequate your disproportionate focus of PacSun Outlets during these states are strictly coincidental, we doubt it.

More likely, PacSun Outlets during these states tend to be supposed to benefit from the anticipated populace development in their particular surrounding communities, and had been developed due to the threat of saturation in states like New York, nj, Maryland, Michigan, Illinois, and California. I have perhaps not heard administration reveal this matter. So, it’s pure conjecture on my part. It is interesting to see where in actuality the brand new PacSun and PacSun Outlets can be found.

In most cases, PacSun stores are not unusually focused in virtually any state or area. In fact, these are typically eerily uniformly distributed relative to state populations. It’s likely administration features deliberately acted assure a straight distribution of PacSun stores over the U.S. because of this, local financial and demographic trends will have no material influence on PacSun’s functions.

d.e.m.o. stores are not (yet) as uniformly distributed. They have been disproportionately based in Northeastern states, Southeastern states, and California. You will find relatively few d.e.m.o. stores west associated with the Appalachians and east associated with the Sierra Nevadas. The number of stores in the d.e.m.o. string continues to be developing at about 20-25percent a year; so, a far more also distribution are achieved later on. Among adolescents, hip hop clothing just isn’t restricted to the Northeast, Southeast, and California. For that reason, it’s not likely the d.e.m.o. string will be permanently restricted to these regions.


Pacific Sunwear’s strategy will be run two separate, non-cannibalizing stores. Management statements each string is focused on a new child “subculture”. I would personally state subculture is just too strong a phrase (and academics tend to be as guilty as retail executives for extending the word to the level in which it loses its meaning). But holds true your two styles, and indeed, both units of consumers tend to be distinct. Discover which has no overlap between PacSun consumers and d.e.m.o. consumers.

In April, the organization intends to present a thousand procedures, a mall-based footwear and add-ons string concentrating on 18-24 year olds. It’s very not likely this string will turn out to be cannibalizing.


Pacific Sunwear locates stores in high-traffic malls. The company actively seeks to discover its stores in malls frequented by large numbers of adolescents, although this sets the organization in direct competition with rivals like Abercrombie & Fitch (ANF), United states Eagle (AEOS), Aeropostale (ARO), Hot Topic (HOTT), and space (GPS). You will find malls for which there are PacSun, Abercrombie & Fitch, Aeropostale, and Hot Topic stores all beneath the exact same roofing.

PacSun’s footwear offerings were specifically effective keeping in mind teenagers coming back. Footwear, specially the sort PacSun offers, tend to be an excellent appeal for teenagers, because males often constant a common stores less usually than women do. Also in which there are not any fashion problems, shoes needs to be on a regular basis changed. Also, males between the many years of 12-24 must get brand new shoes, whether or not there are not any aesthetic considerations involved, because old shoes will simply end installing their particular legs.

Discover anecdotal proof because of this; but, unfortuitously i possibly could perhaps not discover a research describing the yearly change in footwear size for various segments with this age-group. Discover a great amount of information on changes in level for males in this age-group. But is very not likely changes in level tend to be concurrent with changes in footwear size. Anecdotal proof suggests changes in footwear size tend to be more typical plus pronounced among males than among females in this age-group.

Moreover it suggests changes in footwear size would be more widespread plus pronounced inside the youngest portion with this group. It’s essential psychological ramifications, because, if true, attempting to sell footwear would often cause teenagers to constant a particular store at a time when they are more prone to form a practice of shopping here on a regular basis. By way of example, one could anticipate that a male buyer features formed even more attachments and stronger attachments to specific stores once he is 17 than he had once he was 13.

Pacific Sunwear’s stores provide a diverse collection of products within each brand. In fact, the organization is responsible for the growth of a few of the companies it carries into new products (specifically footwear and add-ons). Pacific Sunwear features motivated the owners of a few of its most commonly known companies to grow beyond their particular original product and leverage the importance their particular brand enjoys within Pacific Sunwear’s stores into all over the country product sales of brand new items.

Pacific Sunwear has the capacity to impact such changes, due to the fact business is generally the biggest consumers for each of their sellers. In a number of cases, Pacific Sunwear may be the biggest consumer. The company features even more influence over sellers than would be recommended because of the measurements of its total product sales, due to the fact items it offers generally have a far more limited distribution compared to the items carried by a few of Pacific Sunwear’s bigger competitors.

The companies transported in PacSun and d.e.m.o. stores reap the benefits of a significantly enhanced image on the list of “subculture” they target. They are niche companies that become much more closely associated with their particular niche when they are showcased prominently in PacSun and d.e.m.o. stores.

Discover anecdotal proof that a number of the name companies transported in PacSun stores are becoming so closely from the string, that, inside the customer’s head, the brand’s image while the store’s image have fused. In which a brand transported in PacSun stores can be carried in other places, it will always be significantly more visible in the PacSun stores, due to the fact marketplace for PacSun while the marketplace for the companies it carries have become comparable – while the image PacSun tasks is relatively undiluted. Various other stores operate a larger risk of striking a discordant note.


Pacific Sunwear’s total product sales consist of roughly 67percent brand name product sales and 33percent proprietary brand product sales. Pacific Sunwear’s two biggest specific branded sellers tend to be Quiksilver (ZQK) and Billabong. Both companies are likely still most commonly known for his or her browse wear; however, they usually have branched aside into other product like skateboarding and snowboarding apparel and differing add-ons. Quiksilver is in charge of product sales associated with the Quiksilver, Roxy, and DC footwear companies; Billabong is in charge of product sales of both the Billabong and Element companies.

Each business’s product is the reason about 10percent of Pacific Sunwear’s total product sales or around 15percent of total brand name product sales. Put another way, about twenty cents of every buck invested at Pacific Sunwear stores is used on Quiksilver or Billabong items. These percentages derive from Pacific Sunwear’s business wide total product sales numbers; for that reason, it’s safe to express product sales of Quiksilver and Billabong items compensate above one-fourth of product sales at PacSun stores.

Pacific Sunwear’s total product sales consist of roughly 65percent apparel, 20percent add-ons, and 15percent footwear. Pacific Sunwear features constantly sold even more men’ apparel than women’ apparel. Recently, the space features narrowed a little. Currently, apparel product sales consist of roughly 55percent men’ apparel and 45percent women’ apparel.

Apparel product sales take into account a smaller portion of Pacific Sunwear’s total product sales than that they had in previous years, because product sales of footwear were developing much faster than product sales of apparel. Product sales of add-ons have cultivated quicker than apparel product sales, but slow than footwear product sales. Just relative development will be discussed here; absolute development is good throughout groups. Obviously, it is not surprising thinking about the development in the amount of stores operated.


Recently, development in the amount of total deals per similar store at both PacSun and d.e.m.o. is anemic. However, development in the common product sales exchange was up significantly, permitting Pacific Sunwear to publish strong exact same store product sales numbers. Throughout the last couple of years, the amount of total exchange per similar store is virtually level. Recently, development in the common product sales exchange is as high as 7-8percent.

This might be a short-term trend. Regrettably, I am not persuaded it’s. Pacific Sunwear’s performance when it comes to development in the amount of total deals and development in product sales per sq ft will not be as strong since the headline numbers suggest. They are two metrics to look at closely in the years forward.

The general impression provided by these metrics (and by a lot of one other offered information) is the fact that the PacSun string is more mature than Pacific Sunwear’s impressive development prices suggest. The shop count alone might lead some into the summary that PacSun’s previous development prices tend to be unsustainable. Obviously, every retailer must deal with this issue at some time – and niche stores like PacSun must confront the issue prior to many.

Occasionally, similar store product sales development at PacSun features outpaced similar store product sales development at d.e.m.o. The real difference features usually already been little, but that will not ensure it is immaterial. In the latest period, exact same store product sales had been stronger at d.e.m.o. than at PacSun. Nonetheless, d.e.m.o. doesn’t have the exact same prospective PacSun did. However, administration is intent upon adding brand new d.e.m.o. stores – and, at present, there’s no justification never to.

Both PacSun and d.e.m.o. have some area for growth left – and Pacific Sunwear is generating more than enough free cashflow to invest in their particular growth. The company currently features a great amount of money available. In fact, it probably features more cash than it can successfully deploy, thinking about simply how much free cashflow Pacific Sunwear will create the following year.


Discover still some development potential at both PacSun and d.e.m.o. However, the eye of most Pacific Sunwear shareholders will probably be fixed using one Thousand procedures, the business’s brand new mall-based footwear and add-ons string planned to introduce in April. One Thousand procedures will target 18-24 year olds.

I have mixed emotions about a thousand procedures. The style could be an excellent development automobile. Pacific Sunwear needs somewhere to put all money it’s generating, and a concept are a better long-term wager than continuing to grow the PacSun string.

Discover a proper threat of overexpansion at PacSun. If things turn bad, Pacific Sunwear are affected mightily. But, that is the nature of retail. Involving the operating leases while the fixed expenses associated with each store, niche stores tend to be extremely leveraged.

Product sales increases produce spectacular profit development; product sales decreases cause an immediate erosion of these profits. It is not realistic to believe that a store could possibly get from beneath the burden of their stores in the same manner entrepreneurs and manufacturers can exit a particular profession. The biggest huge difference may be the speed of which profits evaporate. A specialty retailer features very little time to adjust program.

One Thousand Procedures features promise. Pacific Sunwear features demonstrated being able to manage the growth of mall-based stores. The goal market for One Thousand procedures is part of the same age-group focused by Pacific Sunwear’s other two stores. Like d.e.m.o., a thousand procedures will target a tremendously various portion from current Pacific Sunwear stores. One Thousand procedures is not likely to attract the exact same consumers whom frequent PacSun or d.e.m.o. For that reason, it ought to be another non-cannibalizing development automobile.

Footwear is an excellent choice for a mall-based string. Usually, many malls have underserved the child footwear market. Though there are a few notable footwear stores, a nationwide comparison by store count suggests there clearly was a great amount of area for a mall-based child footwear retailer. Teen footwear stores have become scarce relative to teenager apparel stores.

The margins on both shoes and add-ons are good. Equally essential, Pacific Sunwear features demonstrated being able to effectively offer both forms of product. One specifically appealing element of attempting to sell footwear may be the strong appeal of name companies. Obviously, consumers form stronger attachments to footwear companies than to apparel brand. It is not surprising given the limited few footwear products purchased relative to apparel products while the regularity with which any one footwear is used.

You will find essential differences when considering Pacific Sunwear’s two current stores while the a thousand procedures concept. Both PacSun and d.e.m.o. sell entire clothes. They feature everything had a need to dress in the type of this “subculture” they provide. One Thousand procedures cannot offer entire clothes. So, the latest string is not likely to take pleasure from the exact same type of consumer stickiness that PacSun and d.e.m.o. enjoy.

One Thousand procedures will not be as unique as PacSun and d.e.m.o. For now, it is hard to express exactly how unique a thousand procedures will be. But is safe to express the latest string will be less distinct in the thoughts of consumers than either PacSun or d.e.m.o. That is not surprising. Few stores tend to be as distinct as PacSun or d.e.m.o. Not one of Pacific Sunwear’s major competitors operates stores that have and defined an image as PacSun or d.e.m.o.

Pacific Sunwear will manage the One Thousand methods string a lot better than other business potential could. If you first described the One Thousand procedures concept then asked exactly what business might be best suitable for manage it, I would personally need only a portion of another to express Pacific Sunwear. No business is more experienced in attempting to sell footwear to younger consumers.

The PacSun string has done a huge job attempting to sell brand name footwear to adolescents. PacSun is right responsible for the lasting success of several of the companies it carries. Although brand footwear had been a significant part of many skaters’ everyday lives (and more importantly their particular spending practices), PacSun significantly magnified that value. Without PacSun, the value associated with the major skate footwear companies would be less than it’s today. Few stores have experienced this type of good influence on the companies they carry.

Its impossible to evaluate the a thousand procedures concept at this stage. I am viewing the string carefully to observe how it differentiates it self from its competition, exactly how it raises consumer stickiness, and how it selects the companies it carries. The more various a thousand procedures is, the greater effective it should be.

Pacific Sunwear intends to start 8-10 a thousand procedures stores during first half 2006. Management feels the string could grow to 600 – 800 stores. At a typical measurements of 2,500 sqft, that could imply the string could grow to between 1.5 million and 2 million sqft.

Upon announcing the latest concept (a year ago), Pacific Sunwear CEO Seth Johnson made listed here declaration:

Footwear is an extremely effective section of our assortment in PacSun stores. One Thousand procedures will allow united states to leverage our brand administration skills in what we believe is an underserved market. This brand new concept provides a fantastic development automobile that adds a and distinct client base to the business. Coupled with out current PacSun and d.e.m.o. businesses, we will are able to achieve considerable product sales and profit development in the future.

I will be cautiously optimistic about a thousand procedures. The style is more promising than d.e.m.o. However, i am going to must hold back until we see an actual store before i will provide any assessment associated with the string’s profit potential.


Experts tend to be optimistic about Pacific Sunwear’s future earnings, but pessimistic about Pacific Sunwear’s stocks. Wall Street is calculating 16-17percent earnings development within the after that 5 years. That’s below the growth rate Pacific Sunwear achieved during the last a decade. But’s greater than the growth rate I would personally predict.

The average 5-year earnings estimation from experts is within the 16-17percent range; but, the common recommendation is a hold. Both of these viewpoints tend to be mutually exclusive. They have been entirely incompatible. You can not predict a 16-17percent earnings development rate for Pacific Sunwear without additionally forecasting the business’s stocks will outperform the S&P. Really, actually it is possible to, because a lot of experts have done precisely that. But, you shouldn’t.

PSUN is trading at a P/E of about 14. The debate for a substantial several contraction is very weak. What business is going to grow earnings at 16-17percent a year and recreation a P/E well below 12? the most obvious response would be a company weighed straight down by a huge debt burden. So, simply how much financial obligation does Pacific Sunwear have? Nothing.

Their total debts tend to be about add up to existing inventory levels. Present assets (ex other) tend to be about $350 million; total debts tend to be about $250 million. The company features about $125 million in money and marketable securities. Pacific Sunwear can probably generate over $150 million in money from functions annually.

Its not likely the organization can start brand new stores fast enough to keep free cashflow from reaching 50 – $75 million a year. This might be a fast developing business this is certainly generating money much faster than it can invest it.

Discover a high probability that, 5 years from today, there will be less stocks outstanding than you will find today. For that reason, whatever several contraction these analyst are expectant of would have to bring Pacific Sunwear’s stock down to a P/E seldom seen by healthy, developing U.S. companies.

Their PEG ratio is well below 1, and its own forward P/E is mostly about 12. I don’t spend any awareness of these numbers, but experts seem to. So, how about we they rate PSUN a buy? I’m not sure and I also do not care. It probably features some thing related to the industry.

Compared to experts, i am less optimistic about Pacific Sunwear’s earnings development, but much more optimistic in regards to the business’s stocks.


Pacific Sunwear features consistently made large returns on equity while employing little financial obligation. Within the last a decade, the organization features achieved returns on equity of about 17percent. Returns in recent years were greater than returns at the beginning of the ten year period. However, the business’s return on equity is above normal throughout the period, while the distinction between the ROE of modern times while the ROE associated with the much more remote last just isn’t specifically considerable. Fundamentally, this has already been a company with a 17percent return on equity for some time.

Pacific Sunwear scores well on every profitability metric. The company features a higher free cashflow margin – and a straight higher owner’s earnings margin, due to the fact business features invested significantly more in capital expenditures than required for upkeep alone.

Pacific Sunwear’s return on retained earnings features ranged from 25-50percent and its own pre-tax return on non-cash assets features ranged from 20-30percent. These two numbers are quite healthy, specially thinking about the persistence with that they were achieved.

Pacific Sunwear, like the majority of of their rivals, leases its stores under long-term operating leases. The first term of each lease is generally a decade. The employment of operating leases helps it be difficult to compare the profitability of companies like Pacific Sunwear with all the profitability of companies that don’t have any such long-term responsibilities.

Pacific Sunwear features about $700 million in minimal future leasing commitments. The current worth of these commitments is expected at well under $500 million for purposes of comparison. So, whether or not someone had been examine Pacific Sunwear’s capital framework with that of non-retailers, PSUN wouldn’t normally be seemingly unduly leveraged.


I don’t like owning stores, and I also can’t stand valuing stores. Easily had to pick an anticipated 10-year yearly return for the buyer whom buys stocks of PSUN at tomorrow’s opening cost, I would personally pick 12-13percent. This rate of return is enough to beat the marketplace, it is short of the magical 15percent rate of return that i really believe will cause a 3-5percent real after-tax return for the purchase and hold buyer.

Its very imaginable Pacific Sunwear will perform a lot better than I anticipate. If everything goes the way in which administration hopes, and each associated with the three stores is expanded into the stated goals, the 10-year return could be nearer to 15-17percent. However, i really believe such a higher rate of return is not likely. I am staying with 13percent.

Easily had to choose between being 100percent committed to the S&P 500 or becoming 100percent committed to PSUN, I would personally probably select PSUN. Easily had to choose between being 25-50percent committed to S&P 500 or 25-50percent committed to PSUN, I would personally absolutely select PSUN. Regardless, we anticipate stocks of Pacific Sunwear will beat the marketplace within the after that a decade.

If you have significantly more than a handful of shares, PSUN could possibly make a fine inclusion towards profile (if acquired within $22.50 approximately of which the stock last traded).